Cosmic Microwave Radiometer
Citations and General Reading

Citations referenced on this web site are organized on this page by first author. Links to the original article are given wherever possible.


Bensadoun, et al., A Liquid-Helium-Cooled absolute reference cold load for long-wavelength radiometric calibration, Review of Scientific Instruments, 63, 4377-4389, (October 1992) Download Liquid Helium cold load in a Dewar flask which serves as a waveguide for the horn antenna. This configuration is used in my instrument.

Bersenelli, et al., Measurement of the Temperature of the Cosmic Microwave Background at a Frequency of 7.5 GHz, Astrophysical Journal, 355, 102-113 (May 1990) Download

Bersenelli, et al., Measurement of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation Temperature at 90 GHz, Astrophysical Journal, 339, 632-637 (April 1989)Download Note that 90 GHz is higher than the Raleigh-Jeans approximation frequency range. A correction is applied to the results because of nonlinearity.

Dicke, The Measurement of Thermal Radiation at Microwave Frequencies, Review of Scientific Instruments, 17, 268-275 (July 1946) Download Description of the first microwave radiometer invented by Prof. Robert H. Diske at Princeton.

Dicke, et al., Atmospheric Absorption Measurements with a Microwave Radiometer, Physical Review, 70, 340-348 (September 1946) Download First use of a microwave radiometer

Hanany et al., CMB Telescopes and Optical Systems, preprint, to appear in Planets, Stars and Stellar Systems, Volume 1, Telescopes and Instrumentation, arXiv: 1206.2402v1 Download This chapter contains detailed descriptions of many CMB telescopes. This is the only publication that I have found that discusses the size of radiometer optics. See page 9.

Michel Piat at Paris Diderot University has been experimenting with amateur style equipment.

Koppen, How to Measure the Cosmic Microwave Background with TV Satellite Equipment (2015). Download This link has a detailed description of the CMB measurement made by Timo Stein and Christopher Forster in 2008.They employed a 1 meter dish with a similar LNB front end to mine.

Stein and Forster, Kosmologie mit Kaninchendraht und Wasser (Cosmology with Rabbitwire and Water), Sterne und Weltraum, 84-90, July 2008. This is the original Stein and Forster article in German.

Winstein, The Cosmic Microwave Background, Lectures, SLAC Summer School Download Lecture 2 has substantial theory of operation and construction of the U Chicago QUIET instrument.

Bibliography - general reading material

Lashley, The Radio Sky and How to Observe it, Springer.

Wilson, Rohlfs and Huttemeister, Tools of Radio Astronomy, Springer (2009)

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